Plasmon analysis in wheat alloplasmic lines using morphological and chloroplast microsatellite markers
Mahboobeh Hodaei, Ahmad Arzani, Mehdi Rahimmalek.
Inheritance of plant traits mainly depends upon nuclear genes, cytoplasmic factors and their interactions. In the present study, 32 alloplasmic lines accompanied by a euplasmic parental line (control) were evaluated using molecular (chloroplast microsatellite) and morpho-physiological traits during 2010–2011 and 2011–2012. The results of combined analysis of variance showed the significant effect of growing seasons on most of the studied traits as well as the significant effect of cytoplasm on plant height, leaf net CO2 assimilation rate and grain yield per plant. Results of cluster analysis divided the six plasmons based on their phenotypic effects into three groups: (1) R and Sv type, D (Aegilops typica and Ae. ventricosa) and D2 type, as well as B-type plasmon (euplasmic line); (2) a single plasmon of M type and three plasmons of B type; (3) all other B-type and a single D-type plasmon (Aegilops cylindrica). Molecular analysis showed that 20 primer pairs out of 26 chloroplastic microsatellite markers (cpSSR) produced polymorphic bands in the alloplasmic lines. A total of 50 alleles were identified with an average of 2.5 alleles per locus. In this study, polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.05 (WCt17 primer) to 0.49 (WCt9 primer). Cluster analysis of molecular data revealed that the alloplasmic lines belong to two major clusters, in which differentiation of cytoplasmic types belonging to the genus Triticum and Aegilops has been evident. Likewise, analysis of molecular variance showed significant differences between two studied groups (F ST = 0.67, P < 0.001). Overall, our findings indicated that the cpSSR markers can be valuable resources of polymorphic markers for the analysis of cytoplasm of Triticeae species, with the potential for clear differentiation in close species and genera of this tribe.