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Essential oil and total phenolic compounds variation in Achillea pachycephala collected from different regions of Iran

Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, Volume 15, Issue 2, 2012,pages 217-226.

Mehdi Rahimmaleka*, Sayed Amir Hossein Golib, Nematolah Etemadic & Shima Gharbia


Achillea pachycephala Rech.f. is an endemic species of Iran which grows mostly in Central and North-Eastern regions of the country. Essential oils of dried flowers and leaves of A. pachycephalla collected from four localities were analyzed by GC-MS. Total phenolics compounds were also determined in the leaves of samples. Essential oil yield ranged from 0.11 % (Ap4) to 0.57 % (Ap2) in leaves and 0.19 (Ap3) to 0.86 % (Ap2) in flowers. Fifty one components were detected by GC-MS in leaves and flowers of samples. Results indicated a significant variation in oil composition. The main constituents of Ap1 (Northern region) were camphor (43.3 % in flowers and 38.2 % in leaves), borneol (2.7 % in flowers and in 11 leaves), germacrene-D and β-fenchyl alcohol in leaves. The main compounds of Ap2 (Central region) were piperitone (55.6 % in flowers and 46.6 % in leaves), camphor (11.8 % in flowers and 8 % in leaves) and germacrene-D (31.1 % in leaves and 3.8 % in flowers). Ap3 (Central-west region) contained piperitone (58.3 in flowers) while, Ap4 (North-eastern region) had 28.8 % trans-pinane and 22.5 % germacrene-D in leaves. β-eudesmol, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid bis (2-methylpropyl) ester and carvacrol were abundant in shoots of this genotype. Total phenolic compounds ranged from 3.3 mg in Ap1 to 4.1 mg/g DM in Ap4. In general, essential oil composition of the plant was more affected than total phenolic compounds in different geographical regions.

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