Essential oil variation among and within six Achillea species transferred from different ecological regions in Iran to the field conditions
The compositions of essential oils of 19 accessions belonging to six different Achillea species, transferred from the natural habitats in 10 provinces of Iran to the field conditions, were assessed. The relationship between the leaf areas of selected accessions with their essential oil content was also investigated. Essential oil yield of dried plants obtained by hydro-distillation ranged from 0.1 to 2.7% in leaves. Results indicated a significant variation in oil composition among and within species. Total of 94 compounds were identified in 19 accessions belonging to the six species of A. millefolium, A. filipendulina, A. tenuifolia, A. santolina, A. biebersteinii and A. eriophora. The major constituents of the leaves in the tested genotypes were determined as germacrene-D, bicyclogermacrene, camphor, borneol, 1,8-cineole, spathulenol and bornyl acetate. According to the major compounds, four chemotypes were defined as: (I) spathulenol (1.64–34.31%) + camphor (0.2–15.61%) (7 accessions); (II1) germacrene-D (18.78–23.93%) + borneol (7.93–8.26%) + bornyl acetate (11.56–14.66%) (5 accessions); (II2) germacrene-D (13.28–36.28%) + bicyclogermacrene (5.93–8.4%) + 1,8-cineole (15.26–19.41%) + camphor (14.95–23.32%) (2 accessions); (III) borneol + camphor (52.04–63.27) (2 accessions); (IV) germacrene-D (45.86–69.64%) (3 accessions). The relationships of chemotypes with soil type and climatic conditions of collected regions were assessed, as probable reasons of high variations in essential oil components, and discussed.