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Essential oil Composition, Antimicrobial Activity and Anatomical Characteristics of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fruits from Different Regions of Iran

Maryam Salami , Mehdi Rahimmalek , Mohammad Hossein Ehtemam ,
Antoni Szumny , Saskia Fabian , Adam Matkowski 4*

Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants
19 (7) 2016 pp 1614 - 1626


The fruit essential oils of 23 Iranian and European sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)
samples were investigated for essential oil yield and chemical composition. The essential oil yield varied
between 2.4 % and 6.4 %. The content of trans-anethole was from 85.07 % to 90.38 %. Other constituents:
fenchone, estragole, 1,8-cineole and limonene were also present in higher amount than other constituents.
Some anatomical characteristics were also evaluated. There was a negative correlation between trans-anethole
content and thickness of epidermal anticlinal walls. Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Salmonella
typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus was also assessed. Among these bacteria, E. coli
was the most sensitive, for which the MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimal bactericidal
concentration) was 31.5 μg/ml and 62.5 μg/ml, respectively. The antibacterial effect was positively correlated
with higher trans-anethole content.

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