Essential oil and total phenolic compounds variation in Achillea pachycephala collected from different regions of Iran
Achillea pachycephala Rech.f. is an endemic species of Iran which grows mostly in Central and North-Eastern regions of the country. Essential oils of dried flowers and leaves of A. pachycephalla collected from four localities were analyzed by GC-MS. Total phenolics compounds were also determined in the leaves of samples. Essential oil yield ranged from 0.11 % (Ap4) to 0.57 % (Ap2) in leaves and 0.19 (Ap3) to 0.86 % (Ap2) in flowers. Fifty one components were detected by GC-MS in leaves and flowers of samples. Results indicated a significant variation in oil composition. The main constituents of Ap1 (Northern region) were camphor (43.3 % in flowers and 38.2 % in leaves), borneol (2.7 % in flowers and in 11 leaves), germacrene-D and β-fenchyl alcohol in leaves. The main compounds of Ap2 (Central region) were piperitone (55.6 % in flowers and 46.6 % in leaves), camphor (11.8 % in flowers and 8 % in leaves) and germacrene-D (31.1 % in leaves and 3.8 % in flowers). Ap3 (Central-west region) contained piperitone (58.3 in flowers) while, Ap4 (North-eastern region) had 28.8 % trans-pinane and 22.5 % germacrene-D in leaves. β-eudesmol, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid bis (2-methylpropyl) ester and carvacrol were abundant in shoots of this genotype. Total phenolic compounds ranged from 3.3 mg in Ap1 to 4.1 mg/g DM in Ap4. In general, essential oil composition of the plant was more affected than total phenolic compounds in different geographical regions.