Assessment of the genetic variation of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) populations using phytochemical, morphological and ISSR markers
Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to assess the genetic diversity of 23 populations of chamomile. Ten primers were applied, producing 193 polymorphic bands. The polymorphic bands were analysed using Simple Matching (SM) similarity index and UPGMA cluster analysis. The resulting dendrogram consisted of four major groups which were in accordance to the geographical regions from which the populations had originated. Populations from North-western (NW), South-Eastern (SE), Central (C) Iran and Europe tended to be classified separately into groups. The highest gene diversity was observed in populations from the Central regions of Iran (0.25). Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) confirmed the results of cluster analysis, while morphological classification was not related to molecular results. The population from Hungary had the greatest yield of essential oil (0.88 gr/dw), whereas for Iranian ones the greatest and the lowest essential oil yields belonged to NW (Aza = 0.6 and Ard = 0.7) and C (Isf 4, Isf 5 and Isf 6 = 0.44) regions, respectively. The results of the present study could contribute to a better understanding and management of conservation and exploitation of the chamomile germplasm.